Understanding NIS2: What It Means for EU Cybersecurity

Understanding NIS2: What It Means for EU Cybersecurity

Introduction to NIS2

The NIS2 Directive represents a significant advancement in the European Union’s approach to cybersecurity. Building on the original NIS Directive, NIS2 aims to strengthen the overall cybersecurity posture across the EU by introducing stricter security protocols and expanding the scope of regulation to include more critical sectors and digital service providers. 

As much as companies are on board with implementing more robust product security across their connected products, such as medical devices, critical infrastructure machinery, and devices that ensure a reliable supply chain it is a challenge to implement. Today’s product security teams that have relied on various security tools, that weren’t designed for product security, struggle with efficiency and streamlined reporting due to non-centralized product security activities. 

The directive, effective from January 2023 and to be fully enforced by October 2024, gives product security teams an opportunity to reconfigure their operations to harmonize reporting obligations as a step towards encouraging cross-border collaboration to respond to cyber incidents effectively.

Background of NIS2

NIS2, or Directive (EU) 2022/2555, was published on December 14, 2022, and replaces the previous NIS Directive (Directive 2016/1148). The initial directive aimed to enhance cybersecurity across Member States but faced challenges in achieving uniform implementation. NIS2 addresses these gaps by expanding its scope to cover additional industries and imposing stricter requirements on organizations to ensure a higher level of cybersecurity across the EU.

Objectives of NIS2

The NIS2 Directive is designed to create a more resilient and secure digital environment within the European Union. By expanding the scope and tightening the requirements of its predecessor, NIS2 seeks to address the evolving threat landscape and the increasing interconnectivity of critical infrastructure sectors. This initiative is not just a regulatory compliance exercise but a strategic effort to safeguard the EU’s economic stability and public safety in the face of growing cyber threats.

The primary objectives of NIS2 include:

  1. Enhancing Security Requirements: Introducing more stringent cybersecurity measures for various sectors.
  2. Improving Incident Reporting: Standardizing incident reporting protocols to ensure timely and efficient responses to cyber threats.
  3. Strengthening Risk Management: Organizations must adopt comprehensive risk management practices.
  4. Promoting Cooperation: Encouraging better cooperation and information sharing among Member States and with international partners.
Cybersecurity certification
Read how the EU Common Criteria (EUCC) aligns with NIS2 and standardizes certification across Europe.

Key Provisions of NIS2

Enhanced Security Requirements

NIS2 mandates that entities adopt various security measures, including risk analysis, incident handling, business continuity planning, supply chain security, and multi-factor authentication. These measures aim to mitigate the risk of cyber incidents and ensure a robust security posture.

Incident Reporting Obligations

Organizations must notify their national Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) or a competent authority within 24 hours of becoming aware of a significant incident, followed by detailed reports within 72 hours. This ensures rapid response and mitigation of cyber threats.

Risk Management Measures

Entities are required to implement appropriate and proportionate technical, operational, and organizational measures to manage the risks posed to the security of their network and information systems. This includes regular risk assessments and the adoption of best practices in cybersecurity.

Impact on EU Cybersecurity

Implementing NIS2 is expected to impact the cybersecurity landscape within the European Union profoundly. By mandating stricter security protocols and broadening the scope of regulated sectors, NIS2 aims to significantly enhance the overall resilience of the EU’s digital infrastructure. This directive is crucial for ensuring that critical sectors are better protected against cyber threats and capable of swift and effective responses to incidents, thereby minimizing potential damage.

Strengthening Network and Information Security

NIS2 aims to elevate security standards across critical sectors, ensuring organizations are better prepared to defend against cyber threats. This includes enhancing the security of increasingly interconnected products such as industrial machinery, critical infrastructure, and Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) environments.

Improving Incident Response

The directive encourages better incident response capabilities by standardizing reporting procedures and fostering collaboration between Member States. This collaborative approach is designed to enhance the EU’s overall resilience to cyber incidents.

NIS2 Compliance Requirements

Achieving compliance with the NIS2 Directive is essential for organizations within its scope. This compliance ensures adherence to regulatory requirements and enhances these organizations’ cybersecurity posture, protecting them from potential threats and ensuring the continuity of their operations. Compliance with NIS2 requires a thorough understanding of its provisions, proactive implementation of necessary measures, and continuous monitoring and improvement of cybersecurity practices.

Who Needs to Comply?

NIS2 applies to various sectors, including energy, transportation, banking, healthcare, and digital infrastructure. Organizations within these sectors, classified as essential or important entities, must comply with the directive’s requirements. Essential entities face proactive supervision, while important entities are monitored reactively.

Steps to Achieve Compliance

  1. Conduct Risk Assessments: Identify and assess potential cybersecurity risks.
  2. Implement Security Measures: Adopt the necessary technical and organizational measures.
  3. Establish Incident Response Protocols: Develop procedures for incident detection and response.
  4. Ensure Continuous Monitoring: Regularly review and update cybersecurity practices.

Penalties for Non-Compliance

Non-compliance with NIS2 can result in significant penalties, including fines up to €10 million or 2% of the total worldwide annual turnover for essential entities and €7 million or 1.4% of the total worldwide annual turnover for essential entities. These penalties are designed to enforce strict adherence to the directive.

Complying with NIS2
Download the Complying with NIS2 data sheet for a breakdown of each requirement and how to meet them.

Implementation and Challenges

Implementing NIS2 poses several challenges for organizations, primarily due to the comprehensive nature of the directive and its stringent requirements. Successful implementation requires a detailed understanding of the directive, robust planning, and effective execution of the necessary measures.

Timeline for Implementation

NIS2 came into effect in January 2023, with Member States required to transpose it into national law by October 2024. Organizations need to be compliant by this date to avoid penalties. This timeline demands swift and decisive action from organizations to ensure all necessary measures are in place within the stipulated period.

Common Challenges and Solutions


Integrating new security measures into existing frameworks can be complex, especially for organizations with established cybersecurity practices. The requirement to comply with stringent incident reporting timelines adds another layer of complexity, necessitating robust monitoring and reporting systems.


Organizations can address these challenges by leveraging industry standards such as the IEC 62443 series for OT security. Adopting automated tools and platforms for vulnerability management and incident reporting can streamline the compliance process. These tools can help organizations quickly identify, prioritize, and remediate vulnerabilities, ensuring continuous compliance with NIS2 requirements. Additionally, regular training and awareness programs for staff can help maintain a high level of cybersecurity readiness.

Key NIS2 Takeaways

By taking a proactive approach to compliance, organizations can not only meet the regulatory requirements but also significantly enhance their product security operations. 

Relying on a single software solution, such as The Product Security Platform, allows teams to centralize their activities to streamline operations and reduce resource strain. For example, teams can automatically generate and manage SBOMs, then use it to develop a database of contextualized vulnerabilities and automate documentation creation– reducing the opportunity for human error and freeing up practitioners to take proactive steps towards security instead of continuously putting out fires. 

Ultimately, NIS2 broadened the scope of the original NIS Directive to include more sectors and imposed stricter security requirements. This expansion ensures that a wider range of critical infrastructure is protected, addressing the evolving cyber threat landscape. Organizations within the scope of NIS2 must adopt comprehensive cybersecurity measures, conduct regular risk assessments, and comply with stringent incident reporting obligations. Failure to comply can result in significant penalties, emphasizing the importance of adhering to the directive. Additionally, NIS2 promotes better cooperation and information sharing among EU Member States and with international partners. This collaborative approach enhances the overall resilience of the EU’s cybersecurity infrastructure, ensuring a more robust defense against cyber threats and improving incident response capabilities.


How does NIS2 differ from NIS1?

NIS2 expands the scope of regulated sectors, introduces stricter security requirements, and mandates more rigorous incident reporting compared to NIS1​​.

What are the penalties for non-compliance with NIS2?

Penalties can include fines up to €10 million or 2% of the total worldwide annual turnover for essential entities and €7 million or 1.4% of the total worldwide annual turnover for important entities​​​​.

How does NIS2 strengthen network and information security in the EU?

NIS2 enhances security by requiring comprehensive risk management measures, standardizing incident reporting, and promoting better cooperation among Member States​​​​​​.

How does NIS2 enhance security requirements for organizations?

NIS2 mandates a range of security measures, including risk analysis, incident handling, business continuity planning, and multi-factor authentication, ensuring a robust security posture​​​​.